Solid lubricant processes the application in lubricating in cutting
- source:SHERBURNE CNC Machining
Foreword attrition and one big obstacle is in wearing away to machine a process in material, they damage cutting tool, increase power to use up, and tatty wears bead polluted treatment material. In cutting treatment process, of cutting tool before, hind knife face is ceaseless with cut bits and workpiece to produce acuteness clash, osculatory area is in condition of high temperature, high pressure. The clash that produces on cutting tool and wear away can create be no longer in force of cutting tool passivation, make cutting cannot undertake, the acuteness clash that produces on workpiece can make machine exterior quality aggravation. The attrition when be being machined to reduce cutting and wear away, the method that uses generally is undertake lubricating in cutting treatment. Lubricant main effect is the attrition that improves cutting process lubricant condition, drop cutting temperature, prolong cutting tool life thereby, improve treatment surface quality. is in early 19 centuries, solid lubricant applies on the machine that low speed runs, because chafe,the wide lukewarm character with admirable, carrying capacity and taller, good wearability mixes function the characteristic such as sex of effectiveness for a given period of time, the OK in the place that cannot use lube fat, environment applying that reach the circumstance that need not safeguard to fall badly. As a result of the good character of solid lubricant, lubricant of solid of wide also application improves the lubricant condition of attrition in cutting treatment. To cutting treatment undertakes lubricant method basically has 3 kinds: ① uses the cutting liquid that has lubricant function; ② has lubricant coat in cutting tool surface; ③ is used self-lubricating cutting tool. In cutting fluid, solid lubricant just has auxiliary effect with the form of additive, will improve the performance of cutting fluid; And after lubricant of the solid in two kinds of method of lubrication is the main factor that its produce lubricant effect. The sort of solid lubricant is very much, crystal is the black lead of layer shape structure, moS2, WS2, MoSe2, WSe2, BN; Have the metal with softer texture, wait like Ag, Pb, Sn, In; Metallic oxide, fluoride, phosphate waits. In these solid lubricant, have what in applying to atmosphere only, lubricate, wait like black lead, BN; Comfortable Yu Zhen lubricates for nothing, be like MoS2, WS2, pb. 2.
Solid is lubricant if mechanism is hard the metal is in slippage of soft metal surface, below the action of bear, hard metal is pressed into soft metal, make true contact area increases, attrition force also increases subsequently, will produce furrow phenomenon. If hard metal is in slippage of hard metal surface, although the osculatory area between hard metal won't increase, but of hard metal succumb strength is great, attrition force also will increase, as a result of attrition surface warm up, incidental occlusive phenomenon. The coefficient of friction of these two kinds of circumstances is bigger. If is in coating of surface of hard metal base material the film with a very little shear strength, make chafe both neither raises pair of contact area between, what can make shear strength is reduced again is very much, attrition force and coefficient of friction also have bigger reduce, this had the effect with lubricant solid. But, if this filmy Tu Fu is in soft metal surface, film cannot have lubricant effect. Accordingly, the attrition surface between hard metal is adhesion the lubricant effect that the film with a very little shear strength can have anti-friction. If this film comes by solid lubricant fill, call this material solid lubricant. And this paper-thin film calls solid lubricating film. 3.
Solid lubricant is cut in the applied in cutting fluid (grind) cut treatment to use a liquid to lubricate normally, mix with lube, emulsion fluid of cutting of water radical synthesis adds all sorts of additive for the foundation, in order to solve the lubricant and cooling problem in cutting treatment. In the fluid lubricant condition falls, reduce lube viscosity to be able to reduce attrition energy loss, but fall in attrib border and lubricant condition, reduce attrition the most efficient way is the lube additive with appropriate choice -- extremely pressure fight grind agent and attrition improver (FM) . Attrition improver has two kinds big: One kind is chemical attrition improver, be polarity for the most part among them or contain active element (sulfur, phosphor and chloric) compound of macromolecule of oily dissolve sex; Another kind is improver of so called mechanical attrition, this kind of additive basically is the active that be not oil, suspension is in the solid in oil is atomic, like photograph of black lead, 2 vulcanization (MoS2) , get together 4 fluorine ethylene (PTFE) powder and 3 get together content of acerbity complexing of make water of cyanogen amine cyanogen (MCA) is among them the most commonly used solid lubricant additive. In producing practice, people also discovers solid lubricant gradually it is even good that the effect that has in cutting treatment compares groovy liquid to lubricate sometimes. Normally, the solid lubricant that adds cutting juice has black lead, MoS2 and red lead white (Pb3O4) etc. Be in especially oil radical or water base 2 vulcanization molybdenum was added in cutting fluid (MoS2) hind, the effect is more distinct. When cutting tenacity material, can use the cutting oil that contains colloid black lead or MoS2; When cutting brittleness material, can use the emulsion that contains colloid black lead. For instance, weight 0.
5 ％ black lead (or 2 vulcanization molybdenum) , 12 ％ of 10 ％ ～ sulphur acerbity natrium, the emulsification that the others comprises for lube is oily (add additionally a few passivator) , it is chroma dilute with water under 1 ％ , the cutting that can be used at exceeding hard metal is machined, and this fluid all has better effect in all sorts of metallic cutting treatment. joins black lead of plumbic black, colloid or the composition such as 2 vulcanization molybdenum in lube cream account other people, can use at having the cutting state with jumpy or oscillatory flexibility, also can use at the treatment with cutting inferior speed. When using, but direct daub is on cutting tool, also can deserve to be used into emulsion. 2 vulcanization molybdenum wants to form the lubricating film with 1 μ deep M in metallic surface only, have very high adhesion strength and bear reduce capacity. If add up to it and tristearin acid, Shi Lahun,make ointment, besmear Yu Dao has the face, with respect to the service life that can improve cutting tool greatly. If be on 30CrMnSi material tap, when lubricating without solid a tap can attack 200 whorl aperture only, and the tap after lubricating via adding the ointment of 2 vulcanization molybdenum can machine 1000 whorl aperture. is in grinding treatment, mix abrasive and solid lubricant use, can reduce coefficient of friction and attrition heat commonly, raise grinding rate. Consider to discover, when using grinding of material of iron and steel of arenaceous wheel pair, of emery wheel wear away to have dependence with the hear resistance of binder, once calorific reason -- attrition obstruction is reduced, can increase feed quantity and feed rate. If use aromatics polyester (POB) makes binder make making synthetic diamond grind, add 2 vulcanization tungsten or fluorine fossil Chinese ink, criterion feed quantity and feed rate can increase. falls in following case, can lubricate with solid replace a liquid to lubricate. (the circumstance: that cannot 1) use lube fat? Does ㄊ of the male a kind of sedge that read Qi inspect of Tuo of of gourd ladle of Hong of word of of approach of You of た of straightforward advice faint holding sb in respectful awe does κ protect mildew of A Chinese-style unlined garment of moisture in the soil to iron of Jia gourd ladle does T of of gourd ladle of two raw meat or fish censure does ず of commonplace of Ku of ┫ of ィ of of school of fish hawk hydroxide take off ㄊ of a kind of sedge of form of ぶ of buy commonplace? of Tuo of Chen Li makeup? of standing grain of Huang Lu is like water, seawater to wait) pollution or swept circumstance, in damp environmental circumstance, in contain mud in the environmental circumstance of the impurity such as arenaceous, dust, cannot use a liquid to lubricate, can use solid lubricant to undertake lubricating. 4.
Solid lubricant applies mediumly to undertake to cutting tool coating processing is one of important ways that improve cutting tool performance in coating cutting tool, come nearly 10 years, technology of cutting tool coating obtained flying development, coating craft is more and more mature. In total output of Japanese hard alloy and razor blade of pottery and porcelain, coating razor blade is occupied 14% . Coating cutting tool can divide it is two kinds big: One kind is " hard " coating cutting tool, if TiC reachs the coating cutting tool such as Al2O3, main actor defect is exterior hardness performance of tall, wear-resisting is better; Another kind is " soft " coating cutting tool, wait for coating cutting tool like MoS2, WS2, TaS2, MoS2/Mo, MoS2/Ti and WS2/W, the coefficient of friction with workpiece material is very low (0.
01 the left and right sides) , can reduce felt, drop cutting force and cutting temperature. The material of cutting tool coating with current and commonly used basically is all sorts of horniness nitride, oxide, carbide or boride pottery and porcelain, have very tall hardness, exceedingly good hear resistance, be able to bear or endure oxidisability and corrosion resistance. Somebody put forward to improve cutting tool life and productivity in the method of lubricating film of soft solid of deposit of cutting tool surface first 1992. The stability of because the formation of coating material is free can low, chemical function, chemical affinity with workpiece material is small, because this can be in knife, bits, knife, the effect that has effectively to fight felt between labour interface. Below condition of cutting area high temperature, the coating material such as TiC, TiN still can be oxidized to make a few softer TiO2 film. Al2O3 also has the liquidity that comparative in 800 ℃ above, can rise extremely control lubricant function. From the point of tribology viewpoint, this two respects made the action of very good solid lubricant reachs since coating material, make cutting tool fights felt tatty ability to increase not only, to reducing cutting force, cutting temperature is mixed raise treatment quality to all have profit. uses the method such as coating and plated film to form solid lubricant felt in cutting tool surface solid lubricating film, can have lubricant effect. The solid lubricant that has layer shape structure and attrition surface have stronger felt capacity, of its itself each have inferior shear strength between the layer, in cutting process, the solid lubricating film of surface of consist in cutting tool will change workpiece material face, form move film, make the attrition in cutting process happens between move film and lubricating film. Although attrition happens in interior of solid lubricating film, also can achieve reduce coefficient of friction and reduce goal of cutting tool tatty. Jing Yang attrition that studied TiAlN-MoS2/TiAlN horniness lubricating film is characteristic, consider to make clear, in broach (W6Mo5Cr4V2 twist drill, hardness HRC63) go up film of deposit TiAlN-MoS2/TiAlN horniness, can make its are being gotten in cutting a course (auger cut material to be 38CrNi3MoVA, shift is simple, hardness HRC42, broach rotate speed is 600r/min, auger cut deepness 20mm, feed 0.
13mm/r) , have exceedingly good wear-resisting, anti-friction and high temperature resistant wait for function, improved the life of cutting tool substantially thereby. Among them the wear-resisting life of TiAlN horniness film is 1 times closer than TiN filmy tower above. Fox studied MoS2/Ti and black lead / the attrition of CrC lubricant coating is lubricant and characteristic, consider to make clear, in move back and forth attrition experiment condition falls, moS2/Ti lubricant coating has typical attrition tendency (laden 100N) , coefficient of friction is lesser and stable. Undertake through be on the JISS50C steel of thick 20mm bore contrast experiments (rotate speed 30m/min, get deep 18mm, feed 0.
12mm/r) , below dry attrition condition, in the Tu Fu on hard coating the broach of lubricant coating raised a MoS2/Ti greatly life. The broach of compound coating of coating MoS2/Ti and TiN rises than using the life of TiN alone 2.
1 times, the can compare coating of alone use TiAlN life of compound coating of use MoS2/Ti and TiAlN rises 2.
8 times. The You-rong Liu cutting performance that studied cutting tool of MoS2 coating pottery and porcelain and wear away mechanism. With not coating and MoS2 coating cutting tool (Si3N4 and Si3N4/MoS2, TiCN and TiCN/MoS2, WC/Co and WC/Co MoS2) undertake cutting experiments contrasting (cutting speed 103 ～ 208m/min, feed 0.
1mm/r, cutting deepness 0.
25mm, workpiece is mixed for 1045 carbon steel 302 stainless steel) . Test result makes clear, in cutting when 1045 carbon steel, the Si3N4 that uses MoS2 coating and life of TiCN cutting tool are compared not coating cutting tool rose 50% ; Cutting when 302 stainless steel, the life of WC/Co cutting tool that uses MoS2 coating compares his 140% above did not rise when coating. When be being machined with cutting tool of pottery and porcelain, it is main that felt wears away wear away reason, fall in big feed and high speed cutting especially, and MoS2 coating prevented the felt between workpiece and cutting tool effectively. Pass XPS analysis, in cutting process cutting tool surface happened a series of attrition chemistry reacts. is additional, particle bundle mix (IBM) with particle bundle auxiliary deposit (IBAD) the solid that waits for a technology to already also was used at pottery and porcelain is lubricant research. Among them, IBM technology in order to carry can ionic bundle undertake direct bombard to velar layer atom, and make the atom between velar layer and bottom material mixes, make film, base the interface widens, combinative strength increases apparently, and the interfacial chemistry reaction that bombard causes still can make film, base combinative strength rises further. Consider to make clear, the Ti/Ni that uses IBM technology modified is multilayer the improves ZrO2 and data of Si3N4 pottery and porcelain tribology performance with OK and apparent film, especially function of tribology of its high temperature, the coefficient of friction below 800 ℃ high temperature is in 0.
06 ～ 0.
09 between. 5.
Solid lubricant is in self-lubricating the applied in cutting tool is self-lubricating cutting tool is to show itself of cutting tool material has anti-friction, fight grind, lubricant function, can come true below the condition that does not have adscititious lubricating fluid or lubricant self-lubricating cutting treatment. As a result of self-lubricating the application of cutting tool can be reduced attrition and wear away, leave out is cooling and lubricant system, reduce installation cost, prevent the environmental pollution that cutting fluid causes, implementation cleanness turns production, reduce manufacturing cost, because this is self-lubricating,cutting tool is a kind of efficient, clean green cutting tool, wide applied perspective is had in contemporary cutting treatment. Because is self-lubricating material has good tribology character below special work requirement, get consequently the wide attention of people, become material science to study way of a of the domain significant progress. Current, in cutting tool of the implementation in cutting process self-lubricating method basically has two kinds: ① uses the attrition chemistry below action of cutting high temperature to react, in surface of cutting tool material former generate have self-lubricating the reaction film of action; ② adds solid lubricant in cutting tool material directly, implementation cutting tool is self-lubricating. Adding solid state lubricant is preparation self-lubricating a of material important way. Commonly used solid state lubricant has MoS2, HBN, H3BO3, TaS2, WS2 to wait and partial soft metal (Ni, W, Al, Ti, Co) , the coefficient of friction of they and metallic stuff can be reduced to 0.
1 ～ 0.
2, it is the 1/4 ～ 1/2 of material of common cutting tool only. Solid state lubricant is had bear the weight of the limit stability of chemistry of tall, high temperature change of sex of good, content is little wait for a characteristic, good lubricant performance is had below special work requirement. Material of compound cutting tool is formed in joining solid state lubricant matrix of cutting tool material as additive, can use solid state lubricant to pull apply, coefficient of friction easily small wait for a characteristic, successive solid state is formed in cutting tool surface lubricant layer, make cutting tool material obtains self-lubricating character thereby. This kind self-lubricating cutting tool material has performance of good high temperature attrition, the cutting temperature limits that can get used to 1200 ℃ above and very wide cutting speed range, can bear Gao Zaihe, but the strict requirement that the advanced production technology such as treatment of cutting of better contented high speed, dry type cutting, strong voice cutting and difficult treatment material raises to cutting tool material. adds solid state lubricant to meet the effect that produces two fields to function of cutting tool material: On one hand, solid state lubricant can pull apply to form lubricating film in attrition surface, improve the osculatory position of attrition interface thereby, reduce attrition to wear away; On the other hand, solid state lubricant may bring about material machinery function to drop in the dispersion in cutting tool material. Accordingly, to assure the enough content of solid state lubricant already in order to form successive lubricating film, achieve stable lubricant effect thereby, function does not send the physical machinery that can assure cutting tool material again at the same time to drop apparently, must be in function of its physics machinery and self-lubricating reasonable integrated balance has between function. As a result of this kind self-lubricating interior of cutting tool material contains solid state lubricant from beginning to end, consequently cutting tool is had from beginning to end inside whole lifecycle self-lubricating function, and cutting tool material is inside very wide temperature range (low speed arrives high speed cutting) all have self-lubricating ability. 6.
Fluid of epilogue cutting lubricates is cutting in treatment the most traditional, also be to produce actually medium applying the most extensive method of lubrication, but cutting fluid is only inside the limits with cutting inferior temperature ability is effective. Solid lubricant applies mediumly in cutting fluid, the lubricant character that raised cutting greatly, carrying capacity and temperature get used to function, improved treatment surface quality, make cutting fluid rises greatly in the function below harsh treatment condition. The preparation in using solid lubricant coating cutting tool gives the coating cutting tool that has lubricant function, can improve the attrition performance of cutting tool, compare the cutting tool that uses hard coating alone to have taller service life and inferior coefficient of friction. Undertake to cutting tool surface coating is one of a kind of lubricant kind that have an outlook very much besmearing Fu lubricates, domestic and international development is very at present rapid, but the lubricant coating in coating cutting tool complements hard in cutting process, once lubricate to coating wears away or fall off to be able to produce lubricant invalidation, accordingly, from the point of current condition, the lubricant technology that there is an outlook most in cutting treatment may be self-lubricating cutting tool, it is had exceedingly good anti-friction and fight grind action, can save cooling and lubricant system, reduce installation cost, reduce finished cost, reduce resource is used up and prevent cutting fluid the pollution to the environment, can mix in high speed cutting, dry cutting, hard cutting the respect such as the treatment of difficult treatment material has wide applied perspective. Because apply a liquid to lubricate the production in cutting fluid, use, processing and discharge wait for each period to all can cause serious pollution to the environment, and very large proportion is had in finished cost, as the people requirement to environment and finished cost, its application will be restricted strictly, wider application will be obtained after because this solid is lubricant,means is in. CNC Milling CNC Machining